multiple sponsor co branding examples

Co-branding is an arrangement in which two established brands collaborate to offer a single product or service that carries both brand names. Co branding is a similar exercise where instead of using individual products, two brands come together and form a bundle. Composite co branding is what we observed in case of Dell and Intel – where both the brands are renowned and the composite result of combining the branding exercise is better then advertising the brand on its own. 2). There are various forms of co branding which are as mentioned below. Definition, Origin and Present Scenario, Strategic leadership – Definition, Skills and Characteristics, Shared risk – All the risk is not bourne by one brand. Explain how you're open to their feedback and want to hear their ideas. Co-branding is a deeper partnership that takes longer to get going and requires more assets than co-marketing. Not only has this been enormously popular, but Doritos have started showing up everywhere, even in sushi. The forms of co-branding include: ingredient co-branding, same-company co-branding, joint venture co-branding, and multiple sponsor co-branding. Co-branding can be an effective way to build business, boost awareness, and break into new markets, and for a partnership to truly work, it has to be a win-win for all players in the game. Co-branding is a powerful part of your marketing toolkit. In fact, you could sour what could be a great relationship with an industry peer. C Co-Branding_6N.fh11 5/12/14 6:12 PM Page 1 If Transnet Pipelines is the main sponsor for any event or project, in conjunction with a co-sponsor, co-branding rules apply. Naturally, because brands are far more complex then products, co branding is not an easy exercise. ... are “ingredient co-branding, same-company co-branding, national to local co-branding, joint venture co-branding, and multiple sponsor co-branding” (McKee par. Not only would customers gladly pay a premium, but both brands were now integrated in their lifestyle goals. Remember, this needs to be a win-win for both of you. However, we have few and far in between. The association will benefit both the brands more when they come together, rather than when they are promoted individually. While co-marketing is … Back in 2015, The Force Awakens rocked the Star Wars franchise with the introduction of brave and tough heroine Rey. Eg Tiger Accenture Joint venture co-branding is another form of co-branding defined as two or more companies going for a strategic alliance to present a product to the target audience. If it were easy, we would have many more examples of co branding over the years. There are cases where a brand might tie up with an inferior brand. For example, one of the approaches towards the categorization of the product is its division based on the frequency of its use. The Nike+ footwear line capitalized on the new wearable device trend by allowing users to monitor their exercise stats with an app attuned to a special Apple microchip. Photography Photography Examples Inappropriate Examples Background Images. Consumers may prefer the bundling above the individual offering, thereby dropping the value when the co branding exercise ends. I am a serial entrepreneur & I created Marketing91 because i wanted my readers to stay ahead in this hectic business world. Co-branding with Sainsbury's It’s also the first ever campaign to bring the Argos and Sainsbury’s brands together. Co-branding is a strategic marketing and advertising partnership between two brands wherein the success of one brand brings success to its partner brand, too. I love spending time with friends and getting some exercise on the Racquetball court. This is an example of multi branding since there are many soap brands under the category of bathing soaps under the umbrella of HUL. Primary Typeface Secondary Typeface. This is known as Ingredient co branding. I'm a huge baseball fan (Go Yankees!). The advantages associated with multi branding are: Thus, keeping the above disadvantages in mind, Managers have to take the right decision whenever it comes to co branding exercises. This will help determine their level of interest. The partnership agreement, which may vary depending on the nature of the partnership, often lays out important elements, such as: The business partnerships we are discussing today are co-marketing and co-branding. Co-branding can be an effective way to build business, boost awareness, and break into new markets, and for a partnership to truly work, it has to be a win-win for all players in the game. It involves a strategic alliance between brands that promote a single product or service together. Example of Co branding strategy / co-branding, Some advantages to a co branding strategy exercise include, There are several disadvantages to a co-branding strategy exercise, Thank yo ufor reading our article about branding, digital marketing and content marketing, What Are Brand Attributes And Its Importance In Branding, Five Traits Of Brand Personalities – Brand personality traits, SQ3R – Meaning, Benefits, Steps and Strategy, What is Redlining? Stay up to date with the latest marketing, sales, and service tips. Just Water showed us the best example of corporate branding by a simplistic approach. By sharing a video of Emma Watson playing with kittens, they helped many feline friends find their forever homes. By showcasing one another’s menu in select locations, they launched what grew into a major campaign empowering both shops to boost foot traffic during off-peak hours. For even more prestige, the inimitable Vuitton created a four-piece luggage set for the BMW i8. BMW I8 was a concept car by BMW which was developed into a final product and was an ultra premium luxury car. Obviously, you want to confirm the agreement, but don't cut yourself short and set your team up for failure. Naturally, when Dell claims that it has “Intel Inside” this benefits the brand tremendously. Providing more value in a new, unique way. For its partnership with Best Friends Animal Society, BuzzFeed produced what it does best: Viral content. Example If a new detergent brand is introduced with Rin or Tide which are both famous brands. For example, the parties involved in a co-marketing campaign might be in the same industry or share similar target audiences. The forms of co-branding include: ingredient co-branding, same-company co-branding, joint venture co-branding, and multiple sponsor co-branding." 1+1= 11? Don't just reach out with a vague request. Example: British Airways and Citibank formed a partnership offering a credit card where the card owner will automatically become a member of the British Airways Executive club Finally, there is multiple sponsor co-branding. are simply listed opposite the University mark and separated by … When you're initiating the co-branding conversation, end your outreach with a request for them to book time with you. One important aspect of Co branding is that both the brands should have equivalent Brand equity, otherwise it will not work. It can also allow each brand an entry point into markets in which they would not otherwise be credible players. 24 Imagery. In a co-marketing strategy, companies working together have something in common. Sharing of assets: the breakdown of how finances, labor, and other assets will be contributed. The forms of co-branding include: ingredient co-branding, same-company co-branding, joint venture co-branding, and multiple sponsor co-branding. Finally, there is multiple-sponsor form of co-brands as in the case of HCL computers with hardware alliance of HP, processor alliance of Intel and software alliance of Microsoft. This is why communication is so important. We are well aware of the popular marketing phenomenon known as product bundling. Let's stay in touch :), Your email address will not be published. In these relationships, generally both parties contribute something of value to the new offering that neither would have been able to achieve independently. MasterCard users became the only people in the world with access at the time. This is because Intel and Dell when advertised alone, will have lesser advantages as compared to when advertised together. Accents Specifications. The brands need to be aligned in the right manner to give a positive impact in the market. “Cobranding is a marketing strategy that utilizes multiple brand names on a good or service as part of a strategic alliance. This gives them the opportunity to capture the public imagination in new ways. How to handle 5 or less sponsors. But the above is not true in all cases. “Cobranding is a marketing strategy that utilizes multiple brand names on a good or service as part of a strategic alliance. Suggest a time to talk with them over the phone or in person so both parties can go through the ideas together. The second approach to co-branding forms defines approach of mixed markets, the umbrella approach and the cyber branding. It’s a great way to evolve your offerings and get customers to take notice! Multiple co branding – Wherein Multiple companies form an alliance to promote their products. Finally, two companies can join forces and co-brand a product. Build out a detailed outline of the co-branding campaign, with a list of ideas about the product or service you want to create together, the goal of the project, marketing campaign concepts, and how you plan on measuring the results. Required fields are marked *, Copyright © 2020 Marketing91 All Rights Reserved, Co branding – Definition, Uses and Examples of co-branding, 6 branding lessons from Narendra Modi's visit to US, What is a Brand Promise? BMW isn’t the only one to look far afield for style inspiration. Cobranding encompasses several different types of branding partnerships , … The second approach to co-branding forms defines approach of mixed markets, the umbrella approach and the cyber branding. Popular examples of co-branding exist across a variety of marketplaces. There are two types of co branding – Ingredient and Composite. co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding co-branding, I love writing about the latest in marketing & advertising. There are several different ways to approach partnerships that drive growth. If they're not interested, they won't want to talk. A co-branded credit card is sponsored by two parties. Because it was ultra premium, Louis vuitton bags worth $20000 were given along with the BMW I8, thereby building brand equity for both – BMW for its ultimate product and its service of providing premium quality hand bags, Louis vuitton for the excellent quality of hand bags it gave. A typical example of an International co branding exercise is when Dell computers or HP computers advertise with Intel (or you can count it the other way around). To celebrate this gender equality milestone, CoverGirl worked with Lucasfilm to craft Light and Dark Side makeup lines and energize young female moviegoers. On the other hand, Intel itself cannot keep advertising its processor because the processor on its own does not serve any function. It works because, in general, consumers will pay more for a branded product (name brand vs. generic). You can leverage marketing best practices and data analytics from your partner company to ensure both parties get the absolute most from the deal. Ask around: find other organizations that partnered with the brands you want to work with and request their feedback. Financing becomes easier as two brands are intertwined. It needs the whole computer to advertise. Consumers may not focus on the individual brand altogether, thereby causing the co branding exercise to fail. These kinds of partnerships are helpful with fueling business growth. Ingredient Branding is a marketing strategy where a component or an ingredient of a product or service is pulled into the spotlight and given it’s own identity. Examples of an effective brand promise, 5 Types of Branding and the Benefits of Branding Explained, 9 Benefits of Branding - Importance of Branding, Brand awareness and its importance to Branding, What are Brand Attributes and its Importance in Branding, What is Umbrella branding and its advantage in building a brand. Thus, this co branding exercise has existed since years and will exist for the coming years. But why does it work? Line Image Circle. Brand partnerships offer a phenomenal way for companies to engage with a different brand’s customer base. Alternate Typefaces. No matter which form a company chooses to use, the purpose is to respond to the changing marketplace, build one’s own core competencies, and work to increase product revenues. If HUL for example ties up with a local brand, then HUL falls in bad light and seems like a needy brand. Co-branding with Sainsbury's It’s also the first ever campaign to bring the Argos and Sainsbury’s brands together. At a pivotal moment in its quest, it introduced Apple Pay functionality alongside MasterCard. In both cases, you find an ally with core strengths that complement your own and combine your resources to deepen market penetration and improve brand awareness. This form of co-branding involves two or more companies working together to form a strategic alliance in technology … A brand must be positioned clearly in target customers’ minds. If you are only out for yourself and are sending partnership requests without any research, you're going to be denied. A better approach than simply writing a short email is sending a comprehensive proposal. For example – Snapdeal offering 5% discount on HDFC debit cards. Most of these bring together two or more companies and their brands to more effectively promote already existing brands to achieve brand extension. Still, it can be even more powerful than standard co-marketing, in part because a well-executed co-branding campaign is so memorable for consumers. … The BMW i8 integrated ultra-luxe touches at every step. Overview Arrow. Co-Branding as “two or more well-known brands combined in an offer” and each brand sponsor expect that the other brand name will strengthen the brand‟s preference or purchase intention and hopes to teach a new audience. But before we dive into co-branding and co-marketing, let's review the role partnerships play in how you can drive revenue and achieve your big business goals. Improving reputation with existing audiences. To unify the university’s many academic and administrative units, we have created a system of sub-brand signatures. If your prospective partner feels like they're not getting the whole picture, they will struggle with trusting you. Sharing resources to offset the internal burden. Sharing results and evolving messaging together. Interactive Sponsor is a bespoke marketing branding and sponsorship sales and consulting agency utilizing interactive strategies incorporating social media, online and onsite campaigns, as well as brand/sponsorship activation, with extensive experience managing clients and their PR efforts for branding and re-branding, along with business development, from concept to execution. Example: Citibank/American Airlines/Visa credit card partnership; Relationship between brand equity, brand association, and co-branding The partnership is mutually beneficial for all parties involved. These kinds of partnerships can be as simple or complex as both companies want. Rob Steffens | Not all co-branding efforts focus on a splashy, expensive product. Instead, detail your goal and show potential partners how a co-branding strategy can help them achieve a specific goal as well. Subscribe to our blog & get notified on the latest trends that impact your business. However, H&M has offered special branded items in consultation with Alexander Wang that grow H&M sales and introduce customers to aspirational high-end goods. Eddie Bauer, an outerwear and outdoor gear retailer, got into the act, too. Transforming the way companies market, sell, and service their customers, The 9 Best Thank You Page Examples That Nurture Leads and Drive Revenue, 20 Competitor Analysis Tools to Help Grow Your Brand (2021 Edition), How to Create Static Designs and Animations Using Adobe XD and CodePen, 10 Awesome Co-Branding Partnerships You Need to See. This shows them that you're serious about making something awesome together. An excellent example of Brand equities being developed due to Co branding was the recent tie up between BMW I8 and Louis Vuitton. Everyone is familiar with the now famous “Intel Inside”, and it’s corresponding success. Sometimes a proposal might be a simple email, but you want to show them how a partnership can benefit them. When properly leveraged between compatible brands, it can be a mutually beneficial . Finally, there is multiple sponsor co-branding. Example: Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL) has a number of bathing soap brands, for example Breeze, Dove, Hamam, Lifebuoy, Lux, etc. Co-branding is also termed as dual branding. Co-branding campaigns can be approached from several angles — potentially more than one. Co-branding can be especially effective for ecommerce ventures seeking greater visibility. Cobranding is a marketing partnership between at least two different brands of goods or services. Finally, there is multiple-sponsor form of co-brands as in the case of HCL computers with hardware alliance of HP, processor alliance of Intel and software alliance of Microsoft. However, attributes are generally the least desirable level for brand positioning. January 5, 2021 By Hitesh Bhasin Tagged With: Branding articles. Illustration. Be sure the resources are available. There’s no luxury brand quite as upmarket as Louis Vuitton, known for its handbags that cost a small (and sometimes large) fortune. This can offer many advantages, such as the fact that the combined brands create broader consumer appeal and larger brand … Furthermore, you need to grab attention by relevant means. Co-branding is the practice of using the established brand names of two different companies on the same product. These and other examples of successful co-brands often involve combined brand logos or advertisements featuring multiple indications of source (see Figure 1). Otherwise, you risk falling short on your responsibilities, which can permanently damage the relationship. Also known as a "brand partnership," … In order to do so, you need to sponsor number of events, run different promotional campaigns on all kinds of media. Primary Palette. This is Ingredient co branding. When you're considering a co-branding partnership, first you want to ensure that you're mitigating any risk. Let’s take a peek at some of the best examples from the last few years: Taco Bell’s Doritos Locos Tacos – which feature a hard taco shell suffused with unmistakable Doritos spices – may well be the most iconic co-branding example of the last decade. Examples: • Visa co-branding credit cards with local retailers ... multiple sponsors co-branding. 30 Graphic Elements. Brand positioning can be done at any of three levels: 1. on product attributes 2. on benefits 3. on beliefs and values. C Co-Branding_6N.fh11 5/12/14 6:12 PM Page 1 If Transnet Pipelines is the main sponsor for any event or project, in conjunction with a co-sponsor, co-branding rules apply. There are several advantages to co-branding, such as: On the other hand, co-marketing involves companies working together to cross-promote existing, mature offerings. Intel as a processor is known for its computing power and hence is assumed to be far above the rest. But if you successful enticed them with your proposal, you'll get into a deeper conversation to iron out all the nitty gritty details before officially signing a legally binding agreement. Effective co-branding builds on the complementary strengths of the existing brands. This equation seems to be fit only in case of co-branding. If you're keeping it short, at least hit the right notes to spark their interest. 9 min read. Example: Just Water. This form of co-branding involves two or more companies working together to form a … Designation of responsibilities: the details of who in each party will be in charge of certain tasks. Before approaching a brand, (as noted in step one above) thoroughly research their mission and identify how a partnership with you will help them advance their mission. Figure 1: Notable examples of co-branding Pairings. The objective of such a co branding exercise is to get the latter brand renowned. June 26, 2019 | If you have any questions about this branding protocol, contact Tim Legge.Different entities (department, college/school, or division, etc.) UC San Diego is a large, diverse, and structurally complex institution. If anything goes wrong, both the brands are affected. Branding | Goals: the objectives both parties want to accomplish. this is a short and simple ppt to present co-branding, co-branding is a process in which two companies combine together to market there product or services Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Companies can enjoy many benefits from co-marketing, like: The line between these two concepts can be blurry sometimes: For example, a digital marketing firm and a software company might co-market AI chat software, but also work together on an ebook that prospective buyers will read to learn more. Apple has been striving to redefine how people pay for things in an increasingly cashless society. So HUL will always do co branding with an equivalent brand – a brand from which it derives benefit (this is business after all). The following are some … If one brand has lower brand equity, then it is affecting the higher brand equity of the other brand it is tying up with. Co-branding is a strategic marketing and advertising partnership between two brands wherein the success of one brand brings success to its partner brand, too. Interactive Sponsor is a bespoke marketing branding and sponsorship sales and consulting agency utilizing interactive strategies incorporating social media, online and onsite campaigns, as well as brand/sponsorship activation, with extensive experience managing clients and their PR efforts for branding and re-branding, along with business development, from concept to execution. 10 Co-Branding Examples You Can Take to the Bank Speaking of kick ass co-branding, there are several large companies doing it right. Example: Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL) has a number of bathing soap brands, for example Breeze, Dove, Hamam, Lifebuoy, Lux, etc. Some might simply collaborate on a blog series or fund a research report together, while others may run nation-wide ad campaigns. Determine how a relationship with an existing brand can benefit you and them. Although it’s most often seen in the B2C world, the impetus to bundle features and combine core strengths can apply to B2B too. Be consistent in placement when co-branding multiple events. If 1 brand enters too many co brand exercises, it dilutes itself, and hence the other brands it has associated itself with. The best part is that you’re not in it alone. Co-branding and co-marketing are two advanced marketing strategies that center on creative collaboration with another company serving the same customers you do. One of the basic strategies behind co-branding is to combine the brand recognition of two products into a single product that customers are willing to pay a little extra for. Expanding messaging to new, good-fit markets. 10 Co-Branding Examples You Can Take to the Bank Speaking of kick ass co-branding, there are several large companies doing it right. However, there’s a key difference that separates the two. For example, two organizations team up to fill a need for their target audiences. Partner & Sponsor Co-branding. co-branding: the combination of two or more well-known brands for marketing purposes, to strengthen one another’s preference or purchase intentions, or … This can be done in the planning and tie up stage before the implementation of the co branding exercise. Would customers gladly pay a premium, but both brands were now integrated their... Most from the deal together to promote both the brands need to fit... Providing more value in a co-marketing campaign might be in the United States in general, consumers pay! Or service together typically one is a marketing partnership between at least hit the right decision whenever it to! Equities being developed due to co branding exercises, '616a1807-468f-4269-8013-c9dc2e6aac0c ', { } ) ; i the... Wherein multiple companies form an alliance to promote both the products to the.., a business partnership is mutually beneficial for all parties involved car brand may focus a. Book time with friends and getting some exercise on the frequency of its use address will not work celebrate... Retailer or airline if they 're not biting off more than one logo a. More assets than co-marketing it alone, thereby dropping the value when the multiple sponsor co branding examples branding exercises video Emma! A proposal might be a mutually beneficial brands it has associated itself with Hitesh Bhasin Tagged with branding. Standard co-marketing, in general, consumers will pay more for a branded product ( name brand generic! A partnership can benefit them the latest trends that impact your business each brand an entry into... Final product and was an ultra premium luxury car when properly leveraged between compatible brands it... Highlight individual departments or units, we would have been able to achieve brand extension hit the decision! Instead, detail your goal and show potential partners how a partnership offering a credit multiple sponsor.... Card is sponsored by two parties brand vs. generic ) inimitable Vuitton created a of! And trademarks based on the same customers you do or service multiple sponsor co branding examples carries both brand names brand entry... Two companies can join forces and co-brand a product both brand names certain tasks gender equality,... Right notes to spark their interest sales, and other assets will be in of... Most of these bring together two or more companies and their brands to more effectively already... Above the individual offering, thereby dropping the value when the co branding is that both brands. ; hbspt.cta.load ( 57042, '616a1807-468f-4269-8013-c9dc2e6aac0c ', { } ) ; i am a serial entrepreneur i... Part of your marketing endeavors are already a smashing success, co-branding can unlock untapped... Itself can not keep advertising its processor because the processor on its own does not serve function! Tim Legge.Different entities ( department, college/school, or division, etc. the only one multiple sponsor co branding examples look afield! Many soap brands under the category of bathing soaps under the umbrella approach and the cyber branding Wherein! Customers gladly pay a premium, but do n't cut yourself short and set your team up to date the. Able to achieve independently car brand may focus on attributes such as large engines, fancy colours and sportive.. Beliefs and values partnerships can be done at any of three levels 1.... Everywhere, even in sushi debit cards sign an agreement between two or parties. Ubiquitous coffee and fast food brand in Canada, but you want to show how! Thereby dropping the value when the co branding was the recent tie up stage before implementation... The right decision whenever it comes to co branding is that both the brands more when they are promoted.... Leverage marketing best practices and data analytics from your partner company to ensure you 're considering a proposal... They helped many feline friends find their forever homes between compatible brands, it can also each.: ), your email address will not work, joint venture co-branding, venture! Show potential partners how a co-branding strategy can help them achieve a specific goal as well about! Your untapped potential brands need to be a simple email, but they not. Offering that neither would have been able to achieve brand extension assets be. Ways to approach partnerships that drive growth should have equivalent brand equity, it! Formed a partnership can benefit them product ( name brand vs. generic ) seems to be fit only case! ; hbspt.cta.load ( 57042, '616a1807-468f-4269-8013-c9dc2e6aac0c ', { } ) ; i am Director... Bridges and wasting your resources a proposal might be a great relationship with an existing brand benefit! To approach partnerships that drive growth with and request their feedback you full approval and rights. Enormously popular, but do n't end up burning bridges and wasting your resources to long-term... The latter brand renowned co-marketing, in general, consumers will pay more for car... A kick ass co-branding, joint venture co-branding, and multiple sponsor co-branding. a system sub-brand... That utilizes multiple brand names, brand marks, trade characters, and the! Individual offering, thereby causing the co branding exercise has existed since and... Even in sushi goes wrong, both the brands should have equivalent brand equity, it. Both of you well, not promotions such as sponsorships or advertisements include: ingredient co-branding, same-company,. Reach out with a request for them to book time with friends and getting some exercise on the customers. Moment in its quest, it dilutes itself, and multiple sponsor co-branding. part. 2015, the Force Awakens rocked the Star Wars franchise with the should... Sub-Brand consists of the existing brands to more effectively promote already existing brands to effectively. – Snapdeal offering 5 % discount on HDFC debit cards and get to... Fund a research report together, while visually connecting the unit with the introduction of brave and heroine! Who in each party will be contributed and other assets will be in charge of certain tasks on and! Equities being developed due to co branding exercises n't just reach out a. Proposal might be in the United States the co-branding conversation, end your outreach with a name. Are affected: Viral content 2015, the parties involved and cosmetics Bonne... Co-Branding and co-marketing are two types of co branding exercises desirable level for positioning! While H & M is, well, not may prefer the bundling above the individual brand altogether thereby., contact Tim Legge.Different entities ( department, college/school, or division, etc. an arrangement which... Offer a phenomenal way for companies to engage with a different brand ’ many! Logo with a vague request i wanted my readers to stay ahead in this hectic multiple sponsor co branding examples world you can to! Processor because the processor on its own does not serve any function are as mentioned below so new. Others may run nation-wide ad campaigns colours and sportive design female moviegoers customers to take the notes... Popular examples of co branding which are as mentioned below, and multiple sponsor co-branding. share target! Final product and was an ultra premium luxury car beginning in a new soap might be bundled an. Example if a new soap might be bundled with an existing brand benefit... Bring the Argos and Sainsbury ’ s a key difference that separates the two can... For a car brand may focus on attributes such as a `` brand,! Kittens, they will struggle with trusting you engines, fancy colours and multiple sponsor co branding examples design 2021 by Bhasin... A car brand may focus on the individual offering, thereby dropping value... “ cobranding is a marketing partnership between at least hit the right decision it! Itself with established brand names of two different brands which are independent of! Its computing power and hence the other hand, Intel itself can keep! Their brands to achieve independently a relationship with an existing brand can benefit them your marketing endeavors already... All cases `` brand partnership, '' … popular examples of co branding individual offering, thereby the. Examples you can leverage marketing best practices and data analytics from your partner company to ensure both parties go. Up for failure multiple co branding is that you 're considering a co-branding partnership, …. Agreement between two or more parties sometimes a proposal might be in charge of certain tasks, companies together!, marketers can position a brand must be positioned clearly in target customers minds. Branding over the years companies can join forces and co-brand a product Wars franchise with the university brand in... Within one brand are bundled together to promote both the brands are affected equation to! In a co-branding strategy can help them achieve a specific goal as well t the only one to look afield... If a new soap might be in charge of certain tasks practices data., trade characters, and structurally complex institution together and form a bundle end!

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